The Eclectic Mae Claire: “Taboos need to be lifted via pen and paper.”

Author Mae Claire is as multi-faceted as the island of Hispaniola itself. A Haitian orphan, Mae was adopted by Christian missionaries and raised on the Dominican Republic’s North Coast. After attending college in the United States, she returned to the Dominican Republic to teach history and English at an international school. Mae has also become a mother to three adopted children, and, in 2012, she met her partner, Mary. So, is Mae Haitian? Dominican? American? Black? Polyglot? Mother? Lesbian? Christian? Atheist? One thing is certain – Mae Claire is not easily categorized.

Mae Clair has written several novels and memoirs, including Jogging to HellWhat Part of Me Is Saved?, and Larimar. Her books are available through her shop on lulu.com. In this exclusive interview, Mae discusses her 2010 young adult novel P.S. I’m Eleven: Surviving Haiti’s Quake.

Mae Claire, A Novelist of the Caribbean

Mae Claire, A Novelist of the Caribbean

P.S. I’m Eleven is written in English, yet the narrative is certainly not an American style. Would you say the book is set up as a diary or does it follow a narrative pattern particular to the Caribbean?

This book is written in the form of a diary as I traveled to the border of Haiti and jotted down my observations. At some point in the book, when [the narrator] Antoinette is in school, she says that she is writing down everything that happens to her, and that one day she hopes to get it published.

Antoinette’s narration assumes that the reader is quite privileged for being in possession of a book. How do you see reading as a privilege? Do you think reading is a right? 

It is miles and miles to get to a source of education for Antoinette and her best friend. The assumption is that if you have a book, you have the means to get it whether it being via car, bicycle, or horse. In Haiti, checking out books is not a familiar concept. People read the books in the building. I went to visit my oldest daughter in college in August, and I noticed that the facilities are wonderful. I stepped into the library, and it was huge, all air-conditioned and fancy with wireless internet, desks, and everything the kids could ever want. But books? They were behind the circulation desk and were rarely permitted out of the building. Books are sacred, and only privileged people get to read them.

So for [Antoinette], having a book means you are either privileged, or, the concept of book-keeping is quite different. I currently teach 4 year old underprivileged children. Every morning, my routine includes reading a book. My [students] are fascinated by them. [One of the students] does not have any books in her house. When she comes to [my tutoring center] though, she is surrounded by books. Books are also super expensive, and there is usually only one copy of each, so to lose them would be a tragedy. One book would cost about 800 pesos ($23.50 in U.S. Dollars). I sell P.S.I’m Eleven for about 450 pesos ($13.25 US)  and people don’t even dish out the money.

P.S. I'm Eleven  - in Spanish and in English

P.S. I’m Eleven – in Spanish and in English

The book is full of religious imagery – mostly Christian. However, when the Haitian women are burying dead from the earthquake, a polytheistic chanting ritual is performed. I have read that Catholicism is the more official religion of Hispaniola, but what other religious practices exist on the island? Are non-Catholic or Christian practices considered taboo? How do missionaries influence the religious practices of Hispaniola’s residents? 

I think I have infused a lot of my personality and vision into Antoinette’s character, and this is where Christianity has become part of the imagery. I imagine myself in Antoinette’s position. If I had not been adopted at such a young age, I could see myself being her, being all of her.

Religious taboos are not really part of Haiti; if anything, the religions are a mix of everything and anything. They contact the gods, wherever the gods are, at any time, and in any situation. If the Christian God shows himself, then they talk to Him or Her. If the Buddhist God shows up, then that is who they work with. There seems to be little to no discrimination when it comes to their gods.

Missionaries have really created a discriminative perspective on spirituality as they claim that only Jesus can give you life to the fullest. But we know this not to be the truth, as there are many people groups and religious groups experiencing life to its fullest in a much larger spectrum. Missionaries have taught the people of the Hispanola to hate, judge, and discriminate against their own people. Christianity has not taught them to love one another unconditionally, but only to accept one another under certain conditions. Missionaries are the ivory of the ages. They offer food, drink, clothing, and health, and then open up their agenda book. They provide the physiological needs to later say “I told you so”.

What is your writing process like from the start of to the completion of a book? How do you plan your books? Do you have a writing routine? 

My writing process has evolved greatly. As an English teacher, I use writers’ workshop to teach my students how to create a good plan, complete the first draft, work on the second, revise, then edit with a teacher, and then, finally create the publishable draft. But the more I think of that process, the more I realize that not everyone thinks in such a sequence. It is a good idea in theory, but not in life. For me, i always start with an idea, and i build my writing around that one idea. The book I am currently writing, Gracias A Dios, is based on people’s opinions about a God who helps some and not others. I am using my experience and that of other people to formulate and finally create the book. I used to begin by starting at the beginning. But now, like in P.S. I’m Eleven, I at times start at the end. Sometimes you need to know what happens at the end to be able to create a wonderful beginning, middle and refined end.

You seem very in tune with the mind of an eleven-year-old. The book’s narration seems extremely authentic as Antoinette has many understandings of the world, but she still seeks guidance from adults. How did you find Antoinette’s voice? Did anyone in particular inspire you to develop her character? 

Before writing the book, I made a trip to Haiti’s border and spent time helping in a triage two days after the earthquake. I watched and listened and learned. I spoke with kids, around the age of 11. I then documented what i saw, felt, touched, and heard. I came home and then I worked with [cover model] Rocheyli in the summer. Rocheyli is part of the Mariposa Foundation. I spent time with her, at her house, with her family and got an idea of what she wanted in life. I found her character similar to my personality, and the character and voice I wanted for this narrative. I also considered this to be a book I wrote for my 6th grade students at the time. There was one student in particular who reminded me of Antoinette, and so I expounded on that. In short, three to five different kids influenced my writing and making of this character.

P.S. I’m Eleven addresses many topics that are normally taboo in young adult novels: perversion, menstruation, molestation, and lesbianism. Yet, these topics are extremely relevant to the lives of young people. Do you think it is an author’s responsibility to lift taboos? What prompted you to address these ideas through Antoinette’s character?

Taboo is a big word, especially when it comes to children and education. No one wants to step on people’s toes. But, I believe that taboos need to be lifted via pen and paper. If kids are reading it, parents can’t necessarily claim that a teacher has “said” this or “said” that. Alice Seabold’s Lovely Bones is a prime example of topics that are really poignant. My book was not openly welcome even in my school as the principal was afraid to answer questions if parents were to ask. But it is in their library, so kids can choose to pick it up if they please. These topics need to be discussed because children go through these things that are so relevant in their lives. In public schools, kids are dealing with all these topics and more. In private conservative homes, kids are dealing with these topics and more. So sometimes, if a child can read about it, and realize that the main character made it through, they may also acquire the hope that they too will survive. I wanted to address these ideas because i can’t leave them out. If I’m writing about Haiti and poor kids, then the need to include it –  it goes hand in hand. I want my book to encourage kids to ask questions. And hopefully, there is someone who can answer them.

How does the impact of the 2010 earthquake still affect Hispaniola today?
Kids are still homeless, parentless, motionless. No jobs, no money, more prostitution. More fear. Harder to adopt due to new rules, fewer buildings, but a new sense of hope, faith, love.
 

Embodying Literacy: Teaching Reading, Writing, and Public Speaking Through Movement and Drama

As a teacher of reading and writing, I have always required that the scholars in my classes use their eyes, ears, and conversational voices on a daily basis in my classroom. But why have I limited my students access to literacy to only the head when they have whole bodies that can be engaged in learning?

I never questioned myself in this way until the present school year, in which I enrolled in year-long professional development course offered by Very Special Arts of Massachusetts (VSA) and the Boston Public Schools. The course was facilitated by two highly accomplished arts integration specialists, both of whom are faculty members in the Creative Arts in Learning Program at Lesley University: drama pedagogue Marianne Adams and dance therapist Priscilla Harmel.

The program consisted of several components: monthly meetings with our cohort of teachers, online assignments and reflections, curriculum development and implementation, and an on-sight visit from one of the facilitators.

The Teacher Experience

t one point during our very first meeting, a full day session at VSA’s beautiful downtown art gallery and community space, I found myself wrapped in several colorful scarves, dancing and playing drums with a group of teacher-artists I had never met until that day.

Our goal was to explore the immigration experience through enacting Adrienne Rich’s poem: “Breaking through Illusion”. I love poetry on its own, but the joy and engagement of performing works of literature with my classmates was something I needed to share with my middle school ESL classroom. Luckily, the facilitators not only promised but required that I would be doing just that throughout the school year.

Image

Dramatizing two perspectives of a narrative through movement (from left: Kim Taylor Knight, Dance Teacher at the Curley School; Gregg Bodell, Music Teacher at the P.J. Kennedy; Lisa Yanni, Visual Arts Teacher at the Winship; Logan Cole, Drama Teacher at the Dearborn; Gail Gefteas, Art Teacher at the Roosevelt; Jenn Dines, ESL and Special Needs Teacher at the Frederick)

Our subsequent meetings took place in the evenings at the Curley School in Jamaica Plain. At each three-hour session, we not only discussed our progress in implementing arts-based curricula in our classrooms, but we also spent a large part of the time learning and performing whole body arts integration techniques. I learned so much from the interaction with my co-teachers during these sessions. The class was a mix of arts elective teachers and classroom teachers, and this was a very nice juxtaposition to have in the group. The arts teachers were able to present many creative resources and ideas, while the classroom teachers were able to offer insights on the connection to literacy.

Dramatic Reading – Malcolm X

 This year, I had self-selected a goal of pushing my end of unit project-based learning assessments further to include more performance and presentation skills. I wanted my students to take the next step of not only completing a large assessment task, but I needed to push them to be able to present their learning to those outside of our classroom. This is a huge challenge for students learning a second language. Public presentation is nerve-wracking enough in the primary language, and it is exponentially more anxiety provoking in a second language

During the VSA Saturday session, we learned how to use lines from a text to create a script for ensemble performance. I utilized this “script from text” strategy to create an assessment piece of my intermediate and advanced ESL class’s unit on Civil Rights.

My students had just finished reading Walter Dean Myers’ Malcolm X: By Any Means Necessary, and we were about to embark on a close reading of the excerpt “Learning to Read” from The Autobiography of Malcolm X. After reading and discussing “Learning to Read” together, I asked students to pick two or three lines that they thought were most important, explaining that I would use the lines they had selected to develop their parts for a performance piece. After a few rehearsals, our class held a special presentation of our dramatic reading piece for other classes in our middle school.

This performance was witnessed by Boston Public Schools New Teacher Developer Crystal Haynes, who also happens to be one of the hosts of the local television show “Extra Help”. She offered for our students to present the “Learning to Read” dramatic reading piece on television and for them to spend an hour on live television, fielding questions and informing viewers about Malcolm X.

On a cold Tuesday in March, I took a group of students to Roxbury Community College to record the show. It was especially notable that Roxbury Community College is located on Malcolm X Boulevard, not far from the house where Malcolm once lived with his half-sister. The students did incredible work with the performance, and the repeated readings of Malcolm X’s writing also served to build their reading fluency.

VIDEO: 7th and 8th Grade Students Perform “Learning to Read” on the television show “Extra Help” with Dr. Crystal Haynes

Introducing Movement Using the Myths of Heracles

Following our unit on Civil Rights, our class traveled far further back in time to study classical and world mythology. Although I had incorporated drama into the previous unit, our VSA instructor Priscilla Harmel pushed me to think about how to incorporate movement into the mythology unit. Priscilla encouraged me to plan a movement lesson on a day that she was available to come in and support me in teaching.

I adapted a movement lesson from a book recommended to me through the VSA course: Strategies to Integrate the Arts in Langauge Arts by Jennifer M. Bogard and Lisa Donovan, an incredible arts integration resource guide published by Lesley University. The lesson, titled “Moving Statues”, focused on having students identify and then embody action verbs found in a text.

For the text, I chose a selection from D’Aulaire’s Book of Greek Myths in which the epic Greek hero Heracles slays the Nemean Lion as part of his labors that atone for the murder of his wife and sons. Heracles is a muscle man, known more for his brawn then his brain, whose uncontrollable temper often gets the better of his good intentions.

As we read and discussed the selection together, I modeled identifying action verbs in the text. Priscilla assisted me in having the class act out the action verbs using dramatic movements, and she helped me introduce movement vocabulary. Priscilla also encouraged the students to think not only about the verbs and the movements connected to them, but also about Heracles’ intentions as he performed the actions described in the text. She repeatedly asked the students why they thought Heracles was doing what he was doing and how the intention would effect the movement.

Following Priscilla and I’s co-taught lesson, I assigned students to groups and given a text from one of Heracles’ labors. I provided them with a three column graphic organizer: verb, intention, and movement to use as they read through the text and planned a presentation in which they would read the text aloud to the class and act out several of the action verbs.

I provided the students with one class period to prepare the pieces with their groups, and I was truly amazed by the focus and dedication that I observed during the rehearsal period. I did not have to redirect a single student, and I was able to confer with all of the groups and respond to their inquires. The students were 100% focused and engaged on planning their piece. Following the performances, students were given a vocabulary quiz on the selected words, and all students received grades of 90 – 100%.

VIDEO: 8th grade students Francely, Leidhryd, and Vanessa’s performance piece from a selection in which Heracles fights the Amazons

Who’s the REAL Heracles?

I saw a huge pay off with the dramatic performance and action verbs activities as students began writing diary entries from the perspective of Heracles and preparing to present their writing to students in other classes.

Students revised their diary entries after examining several selections from the diaries of Anne Frank and examining how Anne develops her character through sharing her thoughts, feelings, words, and actions with the reader. As students revised, I encouraged them to think about the ways that Heracles moves in order to develop their descriptions of his actions. The combination of embodiment, visualization of movement (through watching their peers’ performances), and deep examinations of the writing techniques used by another diarist engendered sophisticated and unique diary entries from the students.

“SUICIDAL THOUGHTS” by Nicol

Dear Journal

Today is September 19, 0121. Today is also the day of the anniversary that I killed my beloved family. I was about to kill myself too but my friend Theseus saved me. I remember that day like it was yesterday. FLASHBACK

My friend Theseus stood there before me and he stretched out his hands to clasp mine own fresh bloodstained hands. Meaning he would become defiled and have a part of the blame and guilt.

“Do not keep me from sharing all with you. Evil I share with you is not evil to me. Men of great soul can bear the blows of heaven and not flinch.”

I said, “Do you know what I have done?”

” I know this”, Theseus answered. ” your sorrows reach from earth to heaven”.

“So I will die”, I said

“No hero spoke those words”, Theseus said

“What can I do but die?” I cried

Does he not see what I have done. How I should not be forgiven. Not to mention how everyone will look down on me for killing my beloved family.

” Live?” ” A branded man for all to say, look. There is he who killed his wife and sons. everywhere my jailers, the sharp scorpions of the tongue!”

“Even so suffer and be strong.” Theseus answered.”

“You shall come to Athens with me,share my home and all things with me. And you will give to me and to the city a great return, the glory of having helped you.”

I said nothing. A long silenced followed. I decided I will do it for best of my family. At last I spoke, slow , heavy words. “So let it be,” I said,”I will be strong and wait for death”  END OF FLASHBACK

I sat in a chair and cried.

 “Accepting the Twelve Labors” by Francely Clases

When I was in Delphi I went to see the Oracle of Delphi. I really was sad for the loss of my wife and my kids and even though the people of Athen said to me that it wasn’t my fault but the gods, I still feel responsible and I can’t forgive myself. When I got to the priestess and told her what had happened with my wife and kids and she looked at the situation just like I did. She said to me that I needed to be purified for my crime and only a terrible punishment can do that so she sent me to my cousin Eurystheus, the King of Mycenae. I said to myself “I knew it, I knew that I deserved punishment for the killing of my family.” The oracle said that he would give me my punishments. So there I was in Mycenae kneeling before my cousin, ready to become his slave and accepting the punishment he is going to give me.

 “The Lernean Hydra” by Mikel

         My second labor of punishment was to kill the Lernean Hydra, a snake with nine heads, and lived in the swamps of Lerna. Even though I was the strongest and bravest man in the world, I was pretty nervous about this beast, but then I thought, what are the women going to do when they find out that I, the mighty Hercules is nervous about going out to kill the Lernean Hydra? This monster was so poisonous that the fumes from its breath alone were enough to kill whatever came close to it. When I heard these news, I said to my family, “ You better hope that nasty little critter doesn’t kill me with the fumes of its breath.” So I went off. While I was walking through the swamp, I suddenly stopped. I was scared. And, when I turned to my right, there it was, just waiting for me. And, I said to myself, “ Here goes nothing.” So I filled my enormous lungs with air, held my breath, and ran at the Hydra. Swinging my club, I knocked off the Hydra’s heads, and one after the other they rolled to the ground. Here’s what really put me in shock. But no sooner had I knocked off one head then a new one grew in its place. So I half turned around and let out enough air to call to my charioteer to bring a firebrand and sear the necks. Then no new heads could sprout. What really made me mad, was when Hera saw that I was winning over the Hydra, and she sent a giant crab to pinch my heel. So with a mighty kick, I sent the giant crab flying as I knocked off the last of the heads. Then to finish up, I dipped my arrows in the Hydra’s blood, making them so poisonous that a mere scratch from them was deadly. After, I returned to Mycenae and said to myself, “ Thank god it’s over.” My second labor performed.

For the final presentation of the unit, students were instructed to select their best diary entry to perform for students in other classrooms. After two days of preparation, including a session of critical peer feedback, I organized students into small groups and they were sent to my colleagues’ classrooms to perform for their peers. Each student claimed to be the REAL Heracles, but only one students from each group could be chosen by the audience as the REAL or most convincing Heracles.

After the presentations, all students received candy and celebrated together, and the most convincing “Heracleses” received large plastic Easter eggs filled with candy.

8th Grade Guys

Winners of the “Who is the REAL Heracles?” contest hold up their prizes like trophies. A great day of celebration!

 

Reflection

Although participation in the Very Special Arts “Embodying Literacy” course was a lot of work, it was completely worthwhile.

First of all, the monthly meetings provided a wonderful outlet for teachers to get together and embrace their creativity as well as learn easily implemented whole body instructional techniques.

Secondly, completing the projects for the course pushed me to design better curricula for my students that allowed them to use all of their senses to engage in learning. Not only did the results pay off in terms of increasing the job and engagement in my classroom, but students improved their scores on standardized reading examinations, homework completion, and typical schoolwork. Using the arts served to motivate and engage students in our work, and the performances provided students with a huge incentive to make sure that the prerequisite steps were all completed – or else they would risk being unprepared in front of an audience!

Finally, the projects that I required for each unit pushed for students to do open-ended, higher-order thinking tasks. For example, there were no right answers for selecting the most important lines from the “Learning to Read” piece, yet I did require students to explain and justify their choices orally and in writing before I included them in the script. This developed their persuasion skills as well as their attention to the text. Additionally, the embodiment pieces allowed students to explore verbs by creating movements to fit the vocabulary as well as the context or usage of the words. This required for students to synthesize their understanding of the words’ meanings in isolation as well as in context.

I will continue to push myself to embrace drama and whole-body movement in the classroom for future units. The Very Special Arts “Embodying Literacy” course was truly a source of inspiration, and I am sad that it is over!

 

 

Middle School Students Accurately Predict Boston’s Next Mayor

Yesterday, students in Academy 2 at the Lilla G. Frederick Pilot Middle School voted in a Mock Election. Prior to the election, students created campaign posters and completed Voter Registration forms. Students with completed registration forms cast their vote for Boston’s next mayor.

The Mock Election

56 students in grades 6, 7, and 8 participated in the election. Martin J. Walsh won the Mock Election, and he also won the City of Boston Election to become Boston’s next mayor. 42 of our Frederick students voted for Marty Walsh, 13 voted for John Connolly, and 1 students voted for both candidates. This vote was discarded.

Our wonderful Lilla G. Frederick Technology Coordinator Victor Woodroffe streamed the Mock Election Live on You Tube.

The Days Leading Up to the Election

Students used the candidates' website to research their personal histories and views on issues.

Students used the candidates’ website to research their personal histories and views on issues.

Students completed graphic organizers to record information from the websites.

Students completed graphic organizers to record information from the websites.

John Connolly Graphic Organizer

John Connolly Graphic Organizer

Students compared and contrasted the Mayoral Candidates.

Students compared and contrasted the Mayoral Candidates.

After researching and comparing the candidates, students formed their opinion about who they supported in the race.

After researching and comparing the candidates, students formed their opinion about who they supported in the race.

Many students supported Martin J. Walsh.

Many students supported Martin J. Walsh.

MW4

MW3

MW2

A few students supported John Connolly.

A few students supported John Connolly.

Today’s Classwork and Homework

I have created an adapted text and summary lesson for today, using the New York Times’ article on the Mayoral Race. You can download the lesson materials here: Post-Election Lesson Materials.

Malala Yousafzai News Broadcast

Below you will find three wonderful video clips from Japan’s NHK Television Broadcast about Malala Yousafzai’s speech at the United Nations in July. It was interesting to watch and re-watch these clips in Japanese. Although I do not speak any Japanese, the images alone served to tell Malala’s story and how it has affected children in Pakistan and around the world.

 I am so pleased that my student Quddus Rodrigues and his fabulous “super mama” Filomena are featured in this compelling program. Quddus is a model of how reading and writing can inspire us and empower us to advocate for others. I love that he is a young man that stands for education. As Malala says: “Let us empower ourselves with the weapon of knowledge…Education is the only solution.”
Quddus’ Clip in the Broadcast
Malala Broadcast, Part I
Malala Broadcast, Part II

Adapting Text for ELLs: “Taliban shot teenage girl for fighting for girls’ rights”

In a recent comment on the post “Letters to Malala Yousafzai”, veteran teacher Amethyst asked about lower lexile texts for ELL students. Adapted texts are a valuable resource to ELL teachers as they allow for us to convey grade-level content to our students with comprehensible language. Although I have found decent adapted or modified texts on the subscription sites Achieve3000 and EdHelper.com, these sites do not offer texts on more current events nor do they provide articles on the more controversial or deep topics that peak my students’ (and my own) interest.

I have found that it is sometimes easier to simply adapt authentic texts myself, rather than wade fruitlessly through the depths of a search engine. In preparing adapted texts for ELLs, I have found the guidelines in this article from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) extremely helpful.

In summary, the TEA advises teachers to adapt text by employing the following steps:

1. Identify main ideas and key words in the original article.

2. Use a clear topic sentences followed by supporting details.

3. Shorten sentences.

4. Simplify grammar and vocabulary.

5. Rephrase complex ideas.

6. Clarify by giving examples or giving the meaning of a word in parentheses.

7. Make the text easier to look at by using bold headings and larger font sizes.

I would also advise adding some graphics and some words for discussion.

Since it is summer and my text adaptation skills are a little rusty, I created a sample adaptation. I began by printing out, reading, and marking up the original article. I marked the main topics of each paragraph or section and also wrote some ideas for key vocabulary words.

Original article with my annotations

Original article with my annotations

Next, I used Microsoft Word to type up my own adaptation of the text (click the link to download it). The most time consuming part was thinking about the paragraph organization and headings.

Although it does take some time to adapt a text for ELL students, it is worthwhile to create an engaging text appropriate for your own students’ levels. Also, by the time you introduce the text to the class, you will be very prepared for your lesson because you will definitely have familiarized yourself with the content.

From English Language Learners to Cross-Cultural Scholars: Perception, Practice, and Policy

Please click to download my latest presentation: From English Language Learners to Cross-Cultural Scholars: Perception, Practice, and Policy. I will be presenting this tonight as a guest lecturer in a course for graduate students in reading and speech/language pathology at the MGH Institute of Health Professions.It contains an outline of practices for teachers of English Language Learners based on the National Board Standards, and it also provides a very brief overview of the SIOP model.

Presentation

The front page of my latest presentation.

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards: Mission Accomplished (Almost)

Over the past two years, I have been working towards my National Board for Professional Teaching Standards certification in English as a New Language – Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood.

Electronic Portfolio SubMISSION: MISSION ACCOMPLISHED!

At 6:34 am on this Memorial Day Saturday, I completed my electronic submission. Yay, Me!

  • Entry 1: Assessment: 14 page essay + 20 pages of student work
  • Entry 2: Scaffolding: 14 page essay + 15 minute video
  • Entry 3: Interaction: 14 page essay + 15 minute video (passed in 2012 through Take One!)
  • Entry 4: Professional Accomplishment: 25 pages of writing and documentation + 2 page reflective summary

The Examination

Well, I just have a 6-essays-in-3-hours assessment center exam to complete on Saturday, June 29 that will test my knowledge of: “the relationship of language domains in the English Language”;

Domains of English Language Development

Domains of English Language Development

the linguisitic structure of English (phonology, vocabulary, grammar, and discourse) in planning instruction;

Hook Model of Processes Involved in Reading and Writing, including phonology, vocabulary, grammar (which encompasses morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics), and discourse

Hook Model of Processes Involved in Reading and Writing, including phonology, vocabulary, grammar (which encompasses morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics), and discourse

factors influencing second language acquisition and strategies that can enhance second language acquistion“; “academic language associated with concepts common to curriculum”; “description of performance objectives designed to develop students’ knowledge of academic language”, adaptation of text and identification of content goals and supplemental resources for text; and definitions of terms related to English as a New Language and their instructional implications.

Lightbown, P. M., Spada, N., Ranta, L., & Rand, J. (2006). How languages are learned (Vol. 2). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Will this be me in 2014?