Below you will find three wonderful video clips from Japan’s NHK Television Broadcast about Malala Yousafzai’s speech at the United Nations in July. It was interesting to watch and re-watch these clips in Japanese. Although I do not speak any Japanese, the images alone served to tell Malala’s story and how it has affected children in Pakistan and around the world.
In a recent comment on the post “Letters to Malala Yousafzai”, veteran teacher Amethyst asked about lower lexile texts for ELL students. Adapted texts are a valuable resource to ELL teachers as they allow for us to convey grade-level content to our students with comprehensible language. Although I have found decent adapted or modified texts on the subscription sites Achieve3000 and EdHelper.com, these sites do not offer texts on more current events nor do they provide articles on the more controversial or deep topics that peak my students’ (and my own) interest.
I have found that it is sometimes easier to simply adapt authentic texts myself, rather than wade fruitlessly through the depths of a search engine. In preparing adapted texts for ELLs, I have found the guidelines in this article from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) extremely helpful.
In summary, the TEA advises teachers to adapt text by employing the following steps:
1. Identify main ideas and key words in the original article.
2. Use a clear topic sentences followed by supporting details.
3. Shorten sentences.
4. Simplify grammar and vocabulary.
5. Rephrase complex ideas.
6. Clarify by giving examples or giving the meaning of a word in parentheses.
7. Make the text easier to look at by using bold headings and larger font sizes.
I would also advise adding some graphics and some words for discussion.
Since it is summer and my text adaptation skills are a little rusty, I created a sample adaptation. I began by printing out, reading, and marking up the original article. I marked the main topics of each paragraph or section and also wrote some ideas for key vocabulary words.
Next, I used Microsoft Word to type up my own adaptation of the text (click the link to download it). The most time consuming part was thinking about the paragraph organization and headings.
Although it does take some time to adapt a text for ELL students, it is worthwhile to create an engaging text appropriate for your own students’ levels. Also, by the time you introduce the text to the class, you will be very prepared for your lesson because you will definitely have familiarized yourself with the content.
A group of my seventh and eighth grade intermediate ESL students felt shocked and outraged after reading an article about the Taliban’s attack on 14-year-old award-winning activist, writer, and student Malala Yousafzai. They decided to write her letters in order to wish her a speedy recovery and to ask questions and express their feelings.
As Aminata Keita performs her poetry slam version of her original poem “My Accent”, published in her 2012 book Struggles of a Dreamer, a tear wells up in my eye, cleverly disguised behind my thick black sunglasses. I can remember Aminata’s first days in my 5th grade classroom in the fall of 2007, when, as a student new to the United States, she felt extremely frustrated by the combination of her acute intelligence and her lack of English.
Aminata recalls: “I should have been in the 8th grade, and when I had to go to 5th grade, I was really upset. It was a frustrating time, but I’ve learned to control my temper.” Changing grades wasn’t the only struggle that Aminata faced that year. In immigrating to the United States in order to learn English and improve her educational opportunities, Aminata left behind her mother, friends, and family in her native Guinea-Conakry.
Now, at age 15, Aminata is the author of two volumes of poetry: Sentences of the Heart and Struggles of a Dreamer, both published by Books of Hope. Sentences of the Heart is currently out-of-print, as its first edition sold all 100 of its copies. “My sister and I would hustle people at [Somerville High School] soccer games. We would tell them it was a really good book and worth the $12,” explains Aminata as she signs the copy of Struggles of a Dreamer on a late August Sunday inside Davis Square’s Diesel Café.
As we head back to Aminata’s home in Somerville’s Mystic Project, she tells me about the education and the opportunities that Books of Hope has provided for her. When Aminata attends her Books of Hope sessions in the Mystic Project Community Center on Mondays and Wednesdays, the instructors present the students with a social justice topic, such as homelessness or World AIDS Day, for discussion. Then, the students participate in writing exercises, “to get your mind moving”. Finally, the students create performances to present to one another. These in-class performances have led to the formation of a slam poetry team that includes Aminata and other Books of Hope students. The team has performed in Somerville and Boston as well as in Connecticut, New Hampshire, and New York City, including a stint at the Harlem Book Fair.
Aminata attributes much of her successes with writing and performing to the dedication of Books of Hope Director Soul Brown. “It’s in the way she helps me and the other kids,” Aminata says,”She gives us hope at becoming authors. She treats us like her own children.”
When asked how an immigrant student can become a published author, Aminata offers the following advice: “Stay focused. Life is what you make it. Try to do something positive. With no knowledge, you’re probably nothing unless you plan on working at Dunkin’ Donuts or Stop n Shop.”
Perhaps Aminata’s shift from frustrated English Language Learner to confident and serious student can best be understood in her poem “I Used To” from Struggles of a Dreamer.
I Used To
by Aminata Keita
I used to
those amazing steak & cheeses
Love to party
Love going out
Liked trying to fit in
Hate people who are trying to save me from myself
Like sleeping while teachers’ are explaining
Until one day I woke up and
Realized 10 years from now,
Those characteristics are not going
To be paying my bills
But my knowledge and habits will…
The sun beats down upon tin roofs as motoconchos rev their engines, bachata music blasts from a nearby lavandería, and red dust clouds the sidewalks of unpaved streets. Most of the people in Cabarete, ex-patriates, Dominicans, and tourists alike, adorn short shorts, flip flops, and tank tops in a futile attempt to beat the heat. But not Paulina Perez, the principal of Puerto Cabarete School. Upon entering her office, tucked in a shaded pocket of trees inside the gated school yard, I find Paulina seated at her desk, wearing a green button-down shirt, gray suit jacket, long dress pants, and loafers. She greets me with her gorgeous and friendly smile, and, upon observing the sweat dripping off of my face, she quickly gets up and turns on the fan.
I first met Paulina in 2008, when I partnered with teachers from her previous school in a summer writing program. By 2010, during the Mariposa Girls Summer Leadership program, Paulina had moved to the Puerto Cabarete School and generously opened the facility – the schoolyard, classrooms, and library – to the Mariposa volunteers and the young ladies attending the camp, many of whom were students at Puerto Cabarete.
Paulina has devoted her to life to serving her community as both an educator and a parishioner. Paulina received her bachelor degree from the Ponticicia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, and moved to Caberete to begin her career in education. She began this career nearly 20 years ago, teaching in the Cabarete public schools. In 2004, she was promoted to Assistant Director of Colonial Nuevo, a K-8 public school in Callajon de la Loma. In 2008, upon receiving her Masters in Education from UAPA, La Universidad Abierta Para Adultos, she became the Director of Puerto Cabarete, the oldest public school in Cabarete. Within the her parish, she makes home visits to the elderly and sick to facilitate prayers and offer communion. Paulina and her husband, Mario Bonilla, have 4 children, all of whom attend the pubic schools.
Paulina’s office serves as make-shift counseling center for both adults and children alike. Children come in here when they are in trouble in the classroom. Teachers come by when they have a stressful day. Angry, frustrated, or depressed parents bring there problems here. Paulina listens carefully to them, helping them to work through problems by asking questions and offering advice. I myself have cried in Paulina’s office – once due to being completely exhausted by running a summer program and the other time over the murder of a mutual friend. Both times, Paulina’s words and gentle yet strong manner helped me to heal my feelings – indeed, just being in her presence lends itself to a sense of calm.
Over the past three years, the Puerto Cabarete schoolyard has transformed as a result of Paulina’s engagement with her community partner, The Mariposa DR Foundation. Where once stood a chain link fence, through which motoconcho drivers catcalled schoolgirls, now stands a multi-colored wall adorned in butterflies. Volunteers from Lawrence Academy have painted the wall’s interior in rainbow colors. The once-crumbling gate of the school now bears the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child. A planter that was once filled with litter now holds a well-manicured collection of plants. The children in the schoolyard on this day, dressed in their blue school uniforms, are smiling. Several of them volunteer to read to me from the bulletin board, where one of the signs reads: “Proteger tu escuela. Es tu segundo hogar.” Care for your school. It is your second home.”
“Why is it just for girls? That’s what the boys in the neighborhood ask,” explains Victoria Jones, as she sits on the striped futon in the center of the Mariposa DR Foundation‘s office on Calle 9 in Cabarete, Dominican Republic. Victoria has served as a volunteer with the Mariposa DR Foundation since August of 2011, and she will continue to serve the organization until December of 2012 as she completes her practicum for her M.A. in Social Justice and Intercultural Relations from the School for International Training in Brattleboro, Vermont. “I was supposed to go to Tanzania to teach ESL, but Ria [Shroff, another Mariposa volunteer and former School for International Training student] convinced me to come here.”
Over the past year, this poised and thoughtful young woman has clearly made an impression on the families of Cabarete, as several of them have photographs of her in their home and mentioned her by name when asked about the Mariposa program. The teen girls who participate in the Mariposa DR programs are the sole focus of Victoria’s work in the foundation. “Our three overarching goals for all of our girls is that they feel safe, learn skills, and have fun,” she explains. In addition to providing the girls with an out-of-school-time community center, Victoria and the team of Mariposa staff and volunteers provide a wide range of trips and activities outside of the Mariposa office, including swimming, tennis, volleyball, soccer, and capoeira.
Victoria knows the needs of and individual goals for each and every young lady in the program:
“Maritza* used to lack listening skills, and she had difficulty with showing respect for adults and peers. She has developed a lot of maturity as a result of being a part of this program. Ana* is unable to read, and she used to make a lot of negative comments. Julia* devours books. She asks questions, and she shares knowledge. Paula* and Mariana* struggled with attendance, and then they were a part of a sewing program that we did. It helps them with motivation, and they started coming a lot more. They increased their alphabet knowledge. They didn’t know the Spanish alphabet, and they struggled to sound out words.”
Victoria’s extended stay in the Dominican Republic has forced her to spend a lot of time analyzing the difficulties for the young ladies who grow up in the Cabarete community. “These girls are developing as adolescents, and they are learning attitudes, communication skills, and social relations. Their parents may or may not have basic skills. They are very sexualized in this culture, and there is an industry of sex tourism.”
However, Victoria also feels the appreciation and respect of the community: “I was automatically a part of Cabarete when I came here because I was working with the Mariposa Foundation. My work is valued, and I feel very protected here.”
*Note: To protect student’s privacy, names have been changed.